Poland Listen/ˈpoʊlənd/, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe.
PolandPolandCentral EuropeMember states of the European UnionRepublicsCountries bordering the Baltic SeaEuropean countriesSlavic countriesMember states of the United NationsMember states of NATOLiberal democraciesMember states of the Union for the MediterraneanStates and territories established in 1918
The Polish people, or Poles, are a nation indigenous to Poland. They speak the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe. The Polish word for a Polish person is "Polak" (masculine) and "Polka" (feminine). The preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland defines the Polish nation as comprising all the citizens of Poland.
PolesPolish peopleEthnic groups in the United StatesEthnic groups in PolandEthnic groups in RussiaLechitesEthnic groups in Europe
Invasion of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.
Invasion of PolandPolish September Campaign
The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class with origins in the Kingdom of Poland. It gained considerable institutional privileges during the 1333–1370 reign of Casimir the Great. In 1413, following a series of tentative personal unions between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, the existing Lithuanian nobility formally joined this class.
SzlachtaLithuanian nobilityPolish noble titlesBelarusian nobilityUkrainian nobilityPolish nobilityNoble titles
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was created in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I.
Second Polish RepublicStates and territories established in 1918Second Polish RepublicFormer Slavic countries
Partitions of Poland
The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – three partitions which took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were perpetrated by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures.
Partitions of PolandPartitions of Poland
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
This article is about the unit of administrative division; for "public properties, state properties" of Polish-Lithuanian Kings see: Crown lands in Poland and Lithuania; for insignia of Polish and Polish-Lithuanian Kings see: Polish Crown Jewels The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, or simply the Crown ( ), is the name for the semi-legal concept related to the Polish monarchy, or even Poland itself.
Crown of the Kingdom of PolandHistory of Poland (1569–1795)Historical regions in Poland
Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. This motorsport is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points, leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points.
RallyingAuto racing by typeRallying
International Committee of the Red Cross
"ICRC" redirects here. For other uses, see ICRC (disambiguation). The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. States parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005, have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.
International Committee of the Red CrossOrganizations awarded Nobel PrizesSwiss Nobel laureatesNobel Peace Prize laureatesLists of organizationsOrganisations based in GenevaOrganizations established in 1864International Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementAftermath of warUnited Nations General Assembly observersNobel laureates with multiple Nobel awards
Great Northern War
The Great Northern War (1700–21) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in northern Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and August II the Strong of Saxe-Poland-Lithuania. Frederik IV and August II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but re-joined it in 1709.
Great Northern WarWars involving NorwayWars involving SaxonyWars involving the Ottoman EmpireGreat Northern WarWars involving SwedenWarfare of the Early Modern eraWars involving PrussiaPoland–Sweden relations18th-century conflictsHistory of Poland (1569–1795)18th century in Sweden18th century in DenmarkWars involving DenmarkWars involving PolandWars involving Russia
The Kingdom of Poland (Tsardom of Poland), informally known as Congress Poland, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire. It was gradually politically integrated into Russia over the course of the 19th century, made an official part of the Russian Empire in 1867, and finally replaced during the Great War by the Central Powers in 1915 with the theoretically existing Regency Kingdom of Poland.
Congress Poland1867 disestablishmentsFormer Slavic countriesCongress Poland19th century in PolandPeople from Congress PolandStates and territories established in 1815
The Armia Krajowa (abbreviated AK), or Home Army, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. It was formed in February 1942 from the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (Union for Armed Struggle). Over the next two years, it absorbed most other Polish underground forces. It was loyal to the Polish government in exile and constituted the armed wing of what became known as the "Polish Underground State.
Armia KrajowaArmia KrajowaPolish underground organizations during World War II1939 establishments in Poland1945 disestablishmentsMilitary units and formations of Poland in World War IIWorld War II resistance movements
French invasion of Russia
The French invasion of Russia of 1812 (also known as the Patriotic War of 1812, Russian: Отечественная война 1812 года) was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. It reduced the French and allied invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe.
French invasion of RussiaConflicts in 1812Polish–Russian warsInvasions19th-century conflictsRussian people of the Napoleonic WarsFrance–Russia relations1812 in France1812 in RussiaNapoleonic Wars19th century in RussiaWars involving FranceWars involving Russia
List of Polish monarchs
This list concerns the historical monarchs of Poland, from the Middle Ages to 1795 and 19th and early 20th century claimants to the Polish throne. For presidents and other heads of state of Poland during the 20th and 21st centuries, see List of heads of state of Poland. "Queen of Poland" redirects here. For queens consort of Poland, see List of Polish consorts.
List of Polish monarchsPolish monarchsLists of Polish peopleLists of monarchsPolish history timelines
A Polish American (Polish: Amerykanin polskiego pochodzenia), is a citizen of the United States of Polish descent. There are an estimated 10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States. No distinction is made in the American census between ethnically Polish Americans and descendants of non-ethnic Poles, such as Jews or Ukrainians, who were born in the territory of Poland and considered themselves Polish nationals.
Polish AmericanEthnic groups in the United StatesPolish American historyAmerican people of Polish descent
Solidarity (Polish trade union)
Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on August 31, 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non-communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 congress that constituted 1/3 of the total working age population of Poland.
Solidarity (Polish trade union)Eastern BlocSolidarity (Polish union movement)
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium (power, authority). Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy. Aside from the traditional usage, the term empire can be used in an extended sense to denote a large-scale business enterprise, or a political organisation of either national-, regional- or city scale, controlled either by a person or a group authority (political bosses).
The January Uprising was an uprising in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (present-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, parts of Ukraine, western Russia) against the Russian Empire. It began January 22, 1863, and lasted until the last insurgents were captured in 1865. The uprising began as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army, and was soon joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and various politicians.
January UprisingHistory of Poland (1795–1918)January UprisingHistory of Lithuania (1795–1918)History of Belarus (1795–1918)
Greater Poland or Great Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. The region roughly coincides with the present-day voivodeship (province) called Greater Poland Voivodeship, although some parts of historic Greater Poland are within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian, Łódź and Lubusz Voivodeships.
Greater PolandRegions of PolandGreater PolandHistorical regions
PEN International (International PEN to 2011), the worldwide association of writers, was founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. Other goals included: to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; to fight for freedom of expression; and to act as a powerful voice on behalf of writers harassed, imprisoned and sometimes killed for their views.
International PENInternational nongovernmental organizationsOrganizations established in 1921Freedom of expression organizationsInternational PEN
Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. It is a common building block in organic chemistry.
AcetoneKetone solventsCosmetics chemicalsFuel additivesHousehold chemicalsKetonesExcipientsBiotechnology products
Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (ca. 1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), king consort of Kingdom of Poland (1386–1399), and sole King of Poland (1399–1434). He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle Kęstutis. In 1386 in Kraków he was baptized as Władysław, married the young queen regnant Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity.
JogailaJure uxoris kingsPeople from VilniusConverts to Roman CatholicismHouse of Jagiellon1362 birthsPolish Roman CatholicsRuthenian nobilityRoman Catholic monarchsGrand Dukes of LithuaniaPolish monarchsPeople in the Battle of GrunwaldBurials at Archcathedral Basilica of Sts. Stanisław and Vaclav, KrakówConverts to Roman Catholicism from pagan religions1434 deathsLithuanian Roman Catholics
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (Polish: Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic founded in 1918.
Polish government-in-exilePolish exilesHistory of Poland (1945–1989)20th century in LondonPolish Underground StatePoland–United Kingdom relations1990 disestablishmentsPolish expatriates in the United KingdomGovernment of PolandHistory of Poland (1989–present)Political history of PolandStates and territories established in 1939History of Poland (1939–1945)Katyn massacreFormer governments in exileGovernments in exile during World War II
History of the Jews in Poland
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over a millennium. For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was the centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the Partitions of Poland, in particular, with the persecution of Jews by Tsarist Russian authorities.
History of the Jews in PolandPolish JewsJewish Polish history
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)
Eastern Front (World War I)
The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. The term is in contrast to the Western Front. Despite the geographical separation, the events in the two theatres strongly influenced each other. In Russian sources, the war was sometimes called the Second Fatherland War.
Eastern Front (World War I)Austria-Hungary in World War IGerman Empire in World War IOttoman Empire in World War IBulgaria in World War IRussian Empire in World War IEuropean theatre of World War I
Lesser Poland (also Little Poland, Polish Małopolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland, with its capital in the city of Kraków. It forms the southeastern corner of the country, and should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only a small, southern part of Lesser Poland.
Lesser PolandRegions of PolandLesser PolandHistorical regions
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945. Following Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, the former Polish eastern voivodeships (districts) of Kresy (earlier invaded by the Red Army in Nazi–Soviet pact) were added to the General Government by a decree issued by Adolf Hitler.
General GovernmentClient states of Nazi GermanyThe Holocaust in PolandJewish Polish history1945 disestablishmentsThe Holocaust in UkraineStates and territories established in 1939World War II occupied territoriesHistory of Poland (1939–1945)
Polish State Railways
(PKP SA, English: Polish State Railways SA) is the dominant railway operator in Poland. The company was founded when the former Polskie Koleje Państwowe state-owned operator was divided into several units based on the requirements laid down by the European Union. PKP SA is the dominant company in PKP Group collective that resulted from the split, and maintains in 100 % share control, being fully responsible for management of all of the other PKP Group component companies.
Polish State RailwaysPolish State RailwaysPKP Group companiesRailway companies of Poland2001 establishments in Poland
Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)
Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)
Soviet invasion of Poland
The 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939, during the early stages of World War II. Sixteen days after Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west, the Soviet Union did so from the east. The invasion ended on 6 October 1939 with the division and annexing of the whole of the Second Polish Republic by Germany and the Soviet Union.
Soviet invasion of PolandConflicts in 1939Stalinism in PolandPolish–Russian warsPolish September CampaignSoviet military occupationsHistory of Belarus (1939–1945)Soviet invasion of Poland 1939Military operations involving the Soviet Union1939 in the Soviet Union
Administrative divisions of Poland
The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into voivodeships (provinces); these are further divided into powiats (counties), and these in turn are divided into gminas (communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 379 powiats (including 65 cities with powiat status), and 2,478 gminas.
Administrative divisions of PolandCountry subdivisions of EuropeSubdivisions of Poland
President of Poland
The President of the Republic of Poland is the Polish head of state. His or her rights and obligations are determined in the Constitution of Poland. The President of the Republic of Poland is the head of state, the supreme representative of Poland in the international arena. He has executive authority. He has a right to dissolve the parliament in certain cases (e.g. when it fails to form a Council of Ministers or to adopt the budget).
President of PolandPresidents of PolandPoland-related listsLists of presidents
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania:. The term is sometimes used, especially in Israel, to cover all Orthodox Jews who follow a "Lithuanian" style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background. Lithuania was historically home to a large and influential Jewish community that was almost entirely eliminated during the Holocaust: see Holocaust in Lithuania. Before World War II there were over 110 synagogues and 10 yeshivas in Vilnius alone.
Lithuanian JewsJews and Judaism in BelarusLithuanian JewsBelarusian JewsJews and Judaism in LithuaniaJews and Judaism in UkraineUkrainian Jews
Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (Russian: союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically-based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a highly centralized state.
Republics of the Soviet UnionRepublics of the Soviet UnionSoviet Union-related listsRussian-speaking countries and territoriesSubdivisions of the Soviet Union
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish–Lithuanian theaters of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars.
Deluge (history)Guerrilla warsCossack uprisingsHistory of Lithuania (1569–1795)Northern Wars17th century in LithuaniaInvasionsHistory of Belarus (1569–1795)Wars involving SwedenWarfare of the Early Modern era17th-century conflictsPoland–Sweden relations1650sHistory of Poland (1569–1795)Black Madonna of CzęstochowaWars involving Poland
Polish Academy of Sciences
The Polish Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Warsaw, is one of two Polish institutions having the nature of an academy of sciences.
Polish Academy of SciencesNational academies of arts and humanitiesNational academies of sciencesPolish Academy of Sciences1952 establishments
Władysław IV Vasa
Władysław IV Vasa
Polish Air Force
The Polish Air Force is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej . In 2010 it consisted of roughly 16,000 military personnel and about 320 aircraft, distributed among 12 bases throughout Poland.
Polish Air ForcePolish Air Force
Polish resistance movement in World War II
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation. The Polish defence against the Nazi occupation was an important part of the European anti-fascist resistance movement.
Polish resistance movement in World War IIPolish resistance during World War IIAnti-fascismMilitary units and formations of Poland in World War II
Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight.
Contact dermatitisOccupational safety and healthContact dermatitis
The Marynarka Wojenna - (The Navy) Polish navy is a military branch of Republic of Poland Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. It has 80 ships and about 14,300 commissioned and enlisted personnel. The traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy is ORP (Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej - "Ship of the Republic of Poland"). The Marynarka Wojenna is one of the bigger navies on the Baltic Sea. It is mostly responsible for Baltic Sea operations.
Polish NavyPolish Navy
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