Poland Listen/ˈpoʊlənd/, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe.
PolandPolandCentral EuropeMember states of the European UnionRepublicsCountries bordering the Baltic SeaEuropean countriesSlavic countriesMember states of the United NationsMember states of NATOLiberal democraciesMember states of the Union for the MediterraneanStates and territories established in 1918
The Polish people, or Poles, are a nation indigenous to Poland. They speak the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe. The Polish word for a Polish person is "Polak" (masculine) and "Polka" (feminine). The preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland defines the Polish nation as comprising all the citizens of Poland.
PolesPolish peopleEthnic groups in the United StatesEthnic groups in PolandEthnic groups in RussiaLechitesEthnic groups in Europe
Invasion of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.
Invasion of PolandPolish September Campaign
The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class with origins in the Kingdom of Poland. It gained considerable institutional privileges during the 1333–1370 reign of Casimir the Great. In 1413, following a series of tentative personal unions between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, the existing Lithuanian nobility formally joined this class.
SzlachtaLithuanian nobilityPolish noble titlesBelarusian nobilityUkrainian nobilityPolish nobilityNoble titles
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was created in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I.
Second Polish RepublicStates and territories established in 1918Second Polish RepublicFormer Slavic countries
Partitions of Poland
The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – three partitions which took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were perpetrated by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures.
Partitions of PolandPartitions of Poland
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
This article is about the unit of administrative division; for "public properties, state properties" of Polish-Lithuanian Kings see: Crown lands in Poland and Lithuania; for insignia of Polish and Polish-Lithuanian Kings see: Polish Crown Jewels The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, or simply the Crown ( ), is the name for the semi-legal concept related to the Polish monarchy, or even Poland itself.
Crown of the Kingdom of PolandHistory of Poland (1569–1795)Historical regions in Poland
Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. This motorsport is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points, leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points.
RallyingAuto racing by typeRallying
International Committee of the Red Cross
"ICRC" redirects here. For other uses, see ICRC (disambiguation). The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. States parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005, have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.
International Committee of the Red CrossOrganizations awarded Nobel PrizesSwiss Nobel laureatesNobel Peace Prize laureatesLists of organizationsOrganisations based in GenevaOrganizations established in 1864International Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementAftermath of warUnited Nations General Assembly observersNobel laureates with multiple Nobel awards
Great Northern War
The Great Northern War (1700–21) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in northern Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and August II the Strong of Saxe-Poland-Lithuania. Frederik IV and August II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but re-joined it in 1709.
Great Northern WarWars involving NorwayWars involving SaxonyWars involving the Ottoman EmpireGreat Northern WarWars involving SwedenWarfare of the Early Modern eraWars involving PrussiaPoland–Sweden relations18th-century conflictsHistory of Poland (1569–1795)18th century in Sweden18th century in DenmarkWars involving DenmarkWars involving PolandWars involving Russia
The Kingdom of Poland (Tsardom of Poland), informally known as Congress Poland, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire. It was gradually politically integrated into Russia over the course of the 19th century, made an official part of the Russian Empire in 1867, and finally replaced during the Great War by the Central Powers in 1915 with the theoretically existing Regency Kingdom of Poland.
Congress Poland1867 disestablishmentsFormer Slavic countriesCongress Poland19th century in PolandPeople from Congress PolandStates and territories established in 1815
The Armia Krajowa (abbreviated AK), or Home Army, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. It was formed in February 1942 from the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (Union for Armed Struggle). Over the next two years, it absorbed most other Polish underground forces. It was loyal to the Polish government in exile and constituted the armed wing of what became known as the "Polish Underground State.
Armia KrajowaArmia KrajowaPolish underground organizations during World War II1939 establishments in Poland1945 disestablishmentsMilitary units and formations of Poland in World War IIWorld War II resistance movements
French invasion of Russia
The French invasion of Russia of 1812 (also known as the Patriotic War of 1812, Russian: Отечественная война 1812 года) was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. It reduced the French and allied invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe.
French invasion of RussiaConflicts in 1812Polish–Russian warsInvasions19th-century conflictsRussian people of the Napoleonic WarsFrance–Russia relations1812 in France1812 in RussiaNapoleonic Wars19th century in RussiaWars involving FranceWars involving Russia
List of Polish monarchs
This list concerns the historical monarchs of Poland, from the Middle Ages to 1795 and 19th and early 20th century claimants to the Polish throne. For presidents and other heads of state of Poland during the 20th and 21st centuries, see List of heads of state of Poland. "Queen of Poland" redirects here. For queens consort of Poland, see List of Polish consorts.
List of Polish monarchsPolish monarchsLists of Polish peopleLists of monarchsPolish history timelines
A Polish American (Polish: Amerykanin polskiego pochodzenia), is a citizen of the United States of Polish descent. There are an estimated 10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States. No distinction is made in the American census between ethnically Polish Americans and descendants of non-ethnic Poles, such as Jews or Ukrainians, who were born in the territory of Poland and considered themselves Polish nationals.
Polish AmericanEthnic groups in the United StatesPolish American historyAmerican people of Polish descent
Solidarity (Polish trade union)
Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on August 31, 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non-communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 congress that constituted 1/3 of the total working age population of Poland.
Solidarity (Polish trade union)Eastern BlocSolidarity (Polish union movement)
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium (power, authority). Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy. Aside from the traditional usage, the term empire can be used in an extended sense to denote a large-scale business enterprise, or a political organisation of either national-, regional- or city scale, controlled either by a person or a group authority (political bosses).
The January Uprising was an uprising in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (present-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, parts of Ukraine, western Russia) against the Russian Empire. It began January 22, 1863, and lasted until the last insurgents were captured in 1865. The uprising began as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army, and was soon joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and various politicians.
January UprisingHistory of Poland (1795–1918)January UprisingHistory of Lithuania (1795–1918)History of Belarus (1795–1918)
Greater Poland or Great Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. The region roughly coincides with the present-day voivodeship (province) called Greater Poland Voivodeship, although some parts of historic Greater Poland are within the Kuyavian-Pomeranian, Łódź and Lubusz Voivodeships.
Greater PolandRegions of PolandGreater PolandHistorical regions
PEN International (International PEN to 2011), the worldwide association of writers, was founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. Other goals included: to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; to fight for freedom of expression; and to act as a powerful voice on behalf of writers harassed, imprisoned and sometimes killed for their views.
International PENInternational nongovernmental organizationsOrganizations established in 1921Freedom of expression organizationsInternational PEN
Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. It is a common building block in organic chemistry.
AcetoneKetone solventsCosmetics chemicalsFuel additivesHousehold chemicalsKetonesExcipientsBiotechnology products
Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (ca. 1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), king consort of Kingdom of Poland (1386–1399), and sole King of Poland (1399–1434). He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle Kęstutis. In 1386 in Kraków he was baptized as Władysław, married the young queen regnant Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity.
JogailaJure uxoris kingsPeople from VilniusConverts to Roman CatholicismHouse of Jagiellon1362 birthsPolish Roman CatholicsRuthenian nobilityRoman Catholic monarchsGrand Dukes of LithuaniaPolish monarchsPeople in the Battle of GrunwaldBurials at Archcathedral Basilica of Sts. Stanisław and Vaclav, KrakówConverts to Roman Catholicism from pagan religions1434 deathsLithuanian Roman Catholics
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (Polish: Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic founded in 1918.
Polish government-in-exilePolish exilesHistory of Poland (1945–1989)20th century in LondonPolish Underground StatePoland–United Kingdom relations1990 disestablishmentsPolish expatriates in the United KingdomGovernment of PolandHistory of Poland (1989–present)Political history of PolandStates and territories established in 1939History of Poland (1939–1945)Katyn massacreFormer governments in exileGovernments in exile during World War II
History of the Jews in Poland
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over a millennium. For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was the centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the Partitions of Poland, in particular, with the persecution of Jews by Tsarist Russian authorities.
History of the Jews in PolandPolish JewsJewish Polish history
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)
Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)
Eastern Front (World War I)
The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. The term is in contrast to the Western Front. Despite the geographical separation, the events in the two theatres strongly influenced each other. In Russian sources, the war was sometimes called the Second Fatherland War.
Eastern Front (World War I)Austria-Hungary in World War IGerman Empire in World War IOttoman Empire in World War IBulgaria in World War IRussian Empire in World War IEuropean theatre of World War I
Lesser Poland (also Little Poland, Polish Małopolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland, with its capital in the city of Kraków. It forms the southeastern corner of the country, and should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only a small, southern part of Lesser Poland.
Lesser PolandRegions of PolandLesser PolandHistorical regions
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945. Following Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, the former Polish eastern voivodeships (districts) of Kresy (earlier invaded by the Red Army in Nazi–Soviet pact) were added to the General Government by a decree issued by Adolf Hitler.
General GovernmentClient states of Nazi GermanyThe Holocaust in PolandJewish Polish history1945 disestablishmentsThe Holocaust in UkraineStates and territories established in 1939World War II occupied territoriesHistory of Poland (1939–1945)
Polish State Railways
(PKP SA, English: Polish State Railways SA) is the dominant railway operator in Poland. The company was founded when the former Polskie Koleje Państwowe state-owned operator was divided into several units based on the requirements laid down by the European Union. PKP SA is the dominant company in PKP Group collective that resulted from the split, and maintains in 100 % share control, being fully responsible for management of all of the other PKP Group component companies.
Polish State RailwaysPolish State RailwaysPKP Group companiesRailway companies of Poland2001 establishments in Poland
Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)
Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)
Soviet invasion of Poland
The 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939, during the early stages of World War II. Sixteen days after Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west, the Soviet Union did so from the east. The invasion ended on 6 October 1939 with the division and annexing of the whole of the Second Polish Republic by Germany and the Soviet Union.
Soviet invasion of PolandConflicts in 1939Stalinism in PolandPolish–Russian warsPolish September CampaignSoviet military occupationsHistory of Belarus (1939–1945)Soviet invasion of Poland 1939Military operations involving the Soviet Union1939 in the Soviet Union
Administrative divisions of Poland
The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into voivodeships (provinces); these are further divided into powiats (counties), and these in turn are divided into gminas (communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 379 powiats (including 65 cities with powiat status), and 2,478 gminas.
Administrative divisions of PolandCountry subdivisions of EuropeSubdivisions of Poland
President of Poland
The President of the Republic of Poland is the Polish head of state. His or her rights and obligations are determined in the Constitution of Poland. The President of the Republic of Poland is the head of state, the supreme representative of Poland in the international arena. He has executive authority. He has a right to dissolve the parliament in certain cases (e.g. when it fails to form a Council of Ministers or to adopt the budget).
President of PolandPresidents of PolandPoland-related listsLists of presidents
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania:. The term is sometimes used, especially in Israel, to cover all Orthodox Jews who follow a "Lithuanian" style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background. Lithuania was historically home to a large and influential Jewish community that was almost entirely eliminated during the Holocaust: see Holocaust in Lithuania. Before World War II there were over 110 synagogues and 10 yeshivas in Vilnius alone.
Lithuanian JewsJews and Judaism in BelarusLithuanian JewsBelarusian JewsJews and Judaism in LithuaniaJews and Judaism in UkraineUkrainian Jews
Republics of the Soviet Union
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (Russian: союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically-based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a highly centralized state.
Republics of the Soviet UnionRepublics of the Soviet UnionSoviet Union-related listsRussian-speaking countries and territoriesSubdivisions of the Soviet Union
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish–Lithuanian theaters of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars.
Deluge (history)Guerrilla warsCossack uprisingsHistory of Lithuania (1569–1795)Northern Wars17th century in LithuaniaInvasionsHistory of Belarus (1569–1795)Wars involving SwedenWarfare of the Early Modern era17th-century conflictsPoland–Sweden relations1650sHistory of Poland (1569–1795)Black Madonna of CzęstochowaWars involving Poland
Polish Academy of Sciences
The Polish Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Warsaw, is one of two Polish institutions having the nature of an academy of sciences.
Polish Academy of SciencesNational academies of arts and humanitiesNational academies of sciencesPolish Academy of Sciences1952 establishments
Władysław IV Vasa
Władysław IV Vasa
Polish Air Force
The Polish Air Force is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej . In 2010 it consisted of roughly 16,000 military personnel and about 320 aircraft, distributed among 12 bases throughout Poland.
Polish Air ForcePolish Air Force
Polish resistance movement in World War II
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation. The Polish defence against the Nazi occupation was an important part of the European anti-fascist resistance movement.
Polish resistance movement in World War IIPolish resistance during World War IIAnti-fascismMilitary units and formations of Poland in World War II
Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight.
Contact dermatitisOccupational safety and healthContact dermatitis
The Marynarka Wojenna - (The Navy) Polish navy is a military branch of Republic of Poland Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. It has 80 ships and about 14,300 commissioned and enlisted personnel. The traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy is ORP (Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej - "Ship of the Republic of Poland"). The Marynarka Wojenna is one of the bigger navies on the Baltic Sea. It is mostly responsible for Baltic Sea operations.
Polish NavyPolish Navy
Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Royal Prussia (also Polish Prussia) (Polish: Prusy Królewskie; Prusy Polskie; Latin: Prussia Regalis) was a region of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1772). Polish Prussia included Pomerelia (Gdańsk Pomerania), Kulmerland (Chełmno Land), Marienburg (Malbork Voivodeship), Danzig (Gdańsk), Thorn (Toruń), and Elbing (Elbląg). It is distinguished from Ducal Prussia.
Royal PrussiaRoyal Prussia
Implementation Force (IFOR)
The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. Its task was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Implementation Force (IFOR)History of Republika SrpskaMilitary operations involving NATOUnited States Marine Corps in the 20th centuryNATO-led peacekeeping in the former YugoslaviaMultinational units and formationsMilitary history of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Polish term Kresy refers to a territory that was formerly the eastern provinces of Poland. These territories today lie in western Ukraine, western Belarus, as well as eastern Lithuania, with such major cities, as Lviv, Vilnius, and Hrodna. This territory was included within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Second Polish Republic, until World War II.
KresyHistory of Belarus (1918–1939)Historical regions in LithuaniaHistorical regions in UkraineDeportationHistory of UkraineBorders of PolandHistorical regions in BelarusHistory of Poland (1939–1945)Aftermath of World War IIWorld War II crimes in Poland
Polish heraldry is a branch of heraldry focused on studying the development of coats of arms in the lands of historical Poland, as well as specifically-Polish traits of heraldry. The term is also used to refer to Polish heraldic system, as opposed to systems used elsewhere, notably in Western Europe. As such, it is an integral part of the history of the szlachta, the Polish nobility.
Polish heraldryPolish nobility coats of armsBelarusian nobilityPolish nobility coats of arms imagesKinship and descentPolish coats of arms
John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir (Polish: Jan II Kazimierz Waza; German: Johann II. Kasimir Wasa; Lithuanian: Jonas Kazimieras Vaza was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and commonly referred as Jan Kazimierz. His parents were Sigismund III Vasa and Constance of Austria . His older brother, and predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa.
John II Casimir VasaFormer Jesuits1672 deathsPeople of the Russo-Polish War 1654-1667 (Polish side)1609 birthsPeople from KrakówMonarchs who abdicatedHouse of VasaPolish Roman CatholicsRoman Catholic monarchsDukes of OpoleGrand Dukes of LithuaniaPolish monarchsPolish cardinalsBurials at Archcathedral Basilica of Sts. Stanisław and Vaclav, KrakówPolish people of Polish–Russian War (1632–1634)
Union of Lublin
The Union of Lublin replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.
Union of Lublin1569 in LithuaniaPolish–Lithuanian union1569 in PolandPolish–Lithuanian CommonwealthHistory of Belarus (1569–1795)Treaties of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania16th-century treatiesHistory of UkraineLublin1569 in lawHistory of Poland (1569–1795)
Polish Legions in World War I
Polish Legions was the name of Polish armed forces created in August 1914 in Galicia. Thanks to the efforts of KSSN and the Polish members of the Austrian parliament, the unit became an independent formation of the Austro-Hungarian Army. They were composed mostly of former members of various scouting organisations, including Drużyny Strzeleckie and Związek Strzelecki, as well as volunteers from all around the empire.
Polish Legions in World War IMilitary units and formations of Austria-Hungary in World War IMilitary units and formations established in 1914Polish Legions in World War I1914 establishments in Poland
Time of Troubles
The Time of Troubles was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. In 1601–1603, Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population, about two million. At the time, Russia was occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Dymytriads, and suffered from civil uprisings, usurpers and impostors.
Time of TroublesHistory of RussiaMuscovite Russia
Polish Underground State
The Polish Underground State (Polish: Polskie Państwo Podziemne, also known as the Polish Secret State) is a collective term for the underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian, that were loyal to the Polish Government in Exile in London. The first elements of the Underground State were established in the final days of the German invasion of Poland that begun in September 1939.
Polish Underground StatePolish Underground State
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini, which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 15th and 16th centuries and embraced also by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period. It is most famous for its Nontrinitarian Christology but contains a number of other "unorthodox" beliefs as well.
SocinianismUnitarianismPolish UnitariansChristian termsHeresy in ChristianityNontrinitarianism
Polish Socialist Party
The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the most important Polish left-wing political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948. It was established again in 1987 and remains active. Józef Piłsudski, founder of the resurrected Polish state, was a member and later leader of the PPS during early 20th century.
Polish Socialist PartyPolish Socialist Party
Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)
Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)
Mieszko I of Poland
Mieszko I (ca. 930 – 25 May 992), was a Duke of the Polans from about 960 until his death. A member of the Piast dynasty, he was son of Siemomysł; grandchild of Lestek; father of Bolesław I the Brave, the first crowned King of Poland; likely father of Świętosława (Sigrid), a Nordic Queen; and grandfather of her son, Cnut the Great. The first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state.
Mieszko I of PolandConverts to ChristianityHouse of Piast930s births10th-century rulers in Europe992 deathsBurials at Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, PoznańPolish monarchsChalcedonian Christian monarchsPoznań10th-century ChristiansPolish Christians
Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high
History of Poland
The History of Poland is rooted in the arrival of the Slavs, who gave rise to permanent settlement and historic development on Polish lands. During the Piast dynasty Christianity was adopted in 966 and medieval monarchy established. The Jagiellon dynasty period brought close ties with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, cultural development and territorial expansion, culminating in the establishment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.
History of PolandHistory of Poland
Polonization (or Polonisation) was the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture, in particular, Polish language, as experienced in some historic periods by non-Polish populations of territories controlled or substantially influenced by Poland.
PolonizationLithuania–Poland relationsHistory of Lithuania (1569–1795)History of the Lithuanian languageHistory of Belarus (1918–1939)Cultural assimilationHistory of Belarus (1569–1795)Belarusian languageEast Slavic historyPolish cultureHistory of UkraineSlavicization
Great Turkish War
The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century.
Great Turkish WarGreat Turkish WarWars involving Austria
The Khmelnytsky Uprising, was a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine between the years 1648–1657 which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks allied with the Crimean Tatars, and the local peasantry, fought several battles against the armies and paramilitary forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Khmelnytsky UprisingCossack uprisingsPolish–Russian wars17th-century rebellionsJewish Ukrainian history17th century in LithuaniaJewish Russian and Soviet historyAntisemitism in UkraineJewish Polish historyNational revivalsHistory of Russia17th century in PolandKhmelnytsky UprisingHistory of UkraineHistory of Poland (1569–1795)17th century in RussiaAnti-Jewish pogromsUkrainian national liberation17th century in Ukraine
A teleplay is a television play, a comedy or drama written or adapted for television. The term surfaced during the 1950s with wide usage to distinguish television plays from stage plays for the theater and screenplays written for films. All three have different formats, conventions and constraints.
Battle of Warsaw (1920)
The Battle of Warsaw sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, was the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War. That war began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga resulted in the end of the hostilities between Poland and Russia in 1921. The battle was fought from August 12–25, 1920 as Red Army forces commanded by Mikhail Tukhachevsky approached the Polish capital of Warsaw and nearby Modlin Fortress.
Battle of Warsaw (1920)Conflicts in 1920Battles of the Polish–Soviet WarHistory of Warsaw1920 in Poland
Prime Minister of Poland
The Prime Minister of Poland heads the Polish Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service corps).
Prime Minister of PolandPrime Ministers of Poland
A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in Australia, Canada, and the United States or generically as gherkins in the UK) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.
Pickled cucumberArticles with inconsistent citation formatsPicklesLithuanian cuisineAmerican cuisinePolish cuisineAppetizers
Peace of Riga
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga; Polish: Traktat Ryski was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine. The treaty ended the Polish-Soviet War. The Soviet-Polish borders established by the treaty remained in force until the Second World War. They were later redrawn during the Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference.
Peace of RigaHistory of Belarus (1918–1939)Poland–Soviet Union relationsPeace treaties of PolandTreaties entered into force in 1921Treaties of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist RepublicHistory of UkraineTreaties of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist RepublicTreaties concluded in 1921Polish–Soviet WarTreaties of the Second Polish RepublicPeace treaties of the Soviet Union
Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance — Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Polish: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej — Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives and prosecution powers founded by specific legislation. It specialises in the legal and historical sciences and in particular the recent history of Poland.
Institute of National RemembranceCommemoration of communist crimesHistory of Poland (1989–present)1998 establishmentsOrganizations based in PolandPlatform of European Memory and Conscience
History of Poland during the Piast dynasty
The history of Poland during the Piast dynasty is the first major stage in the history of Poland. The Piast period lasted from the 10th to the 14th century, when Poland was established as a state and a nation during the Middle Ages of European history. The history of the Polish state commences with the founding of the Piast dynasty by Mieszko I around 960, when his rule began.
History of Poland during the Piast dynastyHistory of PolandHistory of Poland (966–1385)
Polish Armed Forces
Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej ("Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland", abbreviated SZ RP; popularly, Wojsko Polskie, abbreviated WP—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national defense forces of Poland. The name has been used since the early nineteenth century, but can also be applied to earlier periods.
Polish Armed ForcesMilitary of Poland
Polish census of 2002
Polish census of 2002 (Polish: Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2002) was a census in Poland taken from 21 May to 8 June 2002.
Polish census of 2002Demographics of PolandCensuses in Poland2002 in Poland
Displaced persons camp
A displaced persons camp or DP camp is a temporary facility for displaced persons coerced into forced migration. The term is mainly used for camps established after World War II in West Germany and in Austria, as well as in the United Kingdom, primarily for refugees from Eastern Europe and for the former inmates of the Nazi German concentration camps.
Displaced persons campAftermath of World War IIDisplaced Persons camps
Former eastern territories of Germany
The former eastern territories of Germany (German: Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany which were lost by Germany during and after the two world wars. These territories include the most of the Province of Posen and West Prussia and East Prussia, Farther Pomerania, East Brandenburg and Lower Silesia; and other, smaller regions.
Former eastern territories of GermanyGermany–Poland relationsHistory of PrussiaHistory of GermanyHistory of SilesiaHistory of PomeraniaHistory of BrandenburgBorders of PolandHistorical regions in PolandAftermath of World War IIPartition (politics)
2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash
The 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash occurred on 10 April 2010, when a Tupolev Tu-154M aircraft of the Polish Air Force crashed near the city of Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board.
2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crashPoland–Russia relationsAviation accidents and incidents involving state leadersAviation accident investigations with disputed causes2010 in international relationsAviation accidents and incidents caused by fog2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crashAviation accidents and incidents in RussiaAccidents and incidents involving the Tupolev Tu-154Aviation accidents and incidents in 2010
Royal elections in Poland
Royal elections in Poland (Polish: wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne. Based on traditions dating to the very beginning of the Polish statehood, strengthened during the Piast and Jagiellon dynasties, they reached their final form in the period of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1572 and 1791. The "free election" was abolished by the Constitution of May 3, 1791.
Royal elections in PolandCandidates for the Polish elective throneSejmMonarchyRoyal elections in PolandHistory of Poland (1569–1795)
Royal Castle, Warsaw
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Polish: Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency and was the official residence of the Polish monarchs. It is located in the Castle Square, at the entrance to the Warsaw Old Town. The personal offices of the king and the administrative offices of the Royal Court of Poland were located there from the 16th century until the Partitions of Poland.
Royal Castle, WarsawPalaces in WarsawCastles in Masovian VoivodeshipHouses completed in 1619Buildings and structures in Poland destroyed during World War IIMuseums in WarsawRoyal residences in Poland1944 disestablishmentsRebuilt buildings and structuresDestroyed landmarksDemolished buildings and structures
The Polish Corridor, also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia, which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia. The Free City of Danzig (now the Polish city of Gdańsk) was separate from both Poland and Germany.
Polish CorridorGermany–Poland relationsHistory of PomeraniaHistory of Poland (1918–1939)Treaty of VersaillesAftermath of World War I
Forth (programming language)
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and programming environment. Language features include structured programming, reflection (the ability to modify the program structure during program execution), concatenative programming (functions are composed with juxtaposition) and extensibility (the programmer can create new commands).
Forth (programming language)Systems programming languagesStack-based virtual machinesStack-oriented programming languagesForth programming language familyConcatenative programming languages
Forced labour under German rule during World War II
The use of forced labour in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale. It was a vital part of the German economic exploitation of conquered territories. It also contributed to the mass extermination of populations in German-occupied Europe. The Nazi Germans abducted approximately 12 million people from almost twenty European countries; about two thirds of whom came from the Eastern Europe.
Forced labour under German rule during World War IIGermany in World War IIEconomy of Nazi GermanyUnfree labor during World War II
History of Poland (1939–1945)
History of Poland (1939–1945)
Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)
Foreign relations of Argentina
This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. At the political level, these matters are officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations, also known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President. The Minister of Foreign Relations, since June 2010, is Chancellor Héctor Timerman.
Foreign relations of ArgentinaForeign relations of ArgentinaGovernment of ArgentinaPolitics of Argentina
Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union
Immediately after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poles referred to as the "Kresy," and annexed territories totaling 201,015 km² with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Poles, Belorussians, Ukrainians, Jews, Czechs and others.
Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet UnionHistory of the Soviet Union and Soviet RussiaPoland–Soviet Union relationsEastern BlocSoviet occupation of Eastern Poland 1939-1941World War II occupied territoriesHistory of Poland (1939–1945)
Cross of Merit (Poland)
The Cross of Merit is a Polish civil state award established on June 23, 1923, to recognize services to the state. The Order has three grades: At the time of its establishment in 1923, the Cross of Merit was the highest civilian award in Poland. It was awarded to citizens who went beyond the call of duty in their work for the country and society as a whole.
Cross of Merit (Poland)Orders, decorations, and medals of PolandAwards established in 1923
This article is about a Polish political movement. For Italian party, see National Democracy (Italy). For a Jamaican party, see National Democratic Movement. For the Swedish party, see National Democrats (Sweden).
National DemocracyNational DemocracyPolitical parties in PolandPolitical parties in the Russian EmpireHistory of Poland (1918–1939)History of Poland (1795–1918)History of Poland (1939–1945)
Landscape Park (protected area)
A Landscape Park (Polish Park Krajobrazowy) is the name given in Poland to a type of protected area, of lower status than a National Park (Park Narodowy) and with less stringent restrictions on development and economic use.
Landscape Park (protected area)Landscape parks in Poland
Polish Armed Forces in the West
Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies. (Other Polish forces were raised within Soviet territories; the Polish forces in the East). The formations, loyal to the Polish government in exile, were first formed in France and its Middle East territories following the defeat and occupation of Poland by Germany in September 1939.
Polish Armed Forces in the WestMilitary units and formations of Poland in World War IIMilitary units and formations disestablished in 1947Military units and formations established in 1939
Donald Franciszek Tusk (born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been Prime Minister of Poland since 2007. He was a co-founder and is chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) party. Tusk was officially designated as Prime Minister on 9 November 2007 and took office on 16 November. His cabinet won a vote of confidence in the Sejm on 24 November 2007. He is currently the longest serving prime minister of the Third Republic of Poland.
Donald TuskCandidates for President of PolandCurrent national leadersMembers of Polish Senate 1997-2001Prime Ministers of PolandMembers of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland (1991–1993)Living peoplePeople from GdańskKashubiansPeople from SopotCharlemagne Prize recipientsUniversity of Gdańsk alumni1957 birthsMembers of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland (2005–2007)Members of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland (2001–2005)Civic Platform politicians
Population transfer in the Soviet Union
Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, often classified as "enemies of workers," deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories. In most cases their destinations were underpopulated remote areas.
Population transfer in the Soviet UnionSoviet World War II crimesEthnic cleansing of GermansDeportationForced migration in the Soviet UnionPolitical repression in the Soviet Union